10 useful PHP PEAR packages


PEAR MDB2 is a merge of the PEAR DB and Metabase php database abstraction layers.

It provides a common API for all supported RDBMS. The main difference to most
other DB abstraction packages is that MDB2 goes much further to ensure
portability. MDB2 provides most of its many features optionally that
can be used to construct portable SQL statements:

  • Object-Oriented API
  • A DSN (data source name) or array format for specifying database servers
  • Datatype abstraction and on demand datatype conversion
  • Various optional fetch modes to fix portability issues
  • Portable error codes
  • Sequential and non sequential row fetching as well as bulk fetching
  • Ability to make buffered and unbuffered queries
  • Ordered array and associative array for the fetched rows
  • Prepare/execute (bind) named and unnamed placeholder emulation
  • Sequence/autoincrement emulation
  • Replace emulation
  • Limited sub select emulation
  • Row limit emulation
  • Transactions/savepoint support
  • Large Object support
  • Index/Unique Key/Primary Key support
  • Pattern matching abstraction
  • Module framework to load advanced functionality on demand
  • Ability to read the information schema
  • RDBMS management methods (creating, dropping, altering)
  • Reverse engineering schemas from an existing database
  • SQL function call abstraction
  • Full integration into the PEAR Framework
  • PHPDoc API documentation

MDB2 – InstallationWiki
How to use PHP and PEAR MDB2


Implementation of CAPTCHAs (Completely Automated Public Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart).
Using PEAR’s Text_CAPTCHA to Secure Web Forms


The Log package provides an abstracted logging framework. It includes output handlers for log files, databases, syslog, email, Firebug, and the console. It also provides composite and subject-observer logging mechanisms.
The Log Package
Debugging PHP With Firebug
Advanced Logging in PHP with PEAR


LiveUser is a set of classes for dealing with user authentication
and permission management. Basically, there are three main elements that make up this package:

  • The LiveUser class
  • The Auth containers
  • The Perm containers

The LiveUser class takes care of the login process and can be configured to use a certain permission container and one or more different auth containers.
That means, you can have your users’ data scattered amongst many data containers and have the LiveUser class try each defined container until the user is found.
For example, you can have all website users who can apply for a new account online on the webserver’s local database. Also, you want to enable all your company’s employees to login to the site without the need to create new accounts for all of them. To achieve that, a second container can be defined to be used by the LiveUser class.

You can also define a permission container of your choice that will manage the rights for each user. Depending on the container, you can implement any kind of permission schemes for your application while having one consistent API.
Using different permission and auth containers, it’s easily possible to integrate newly written applications with older ones that have their own ways of storing permissions and user data. Just make a new container type and you’re ready to go!

PEAR::LiveUser Wiki
Getting Started with LiveUser Permissions
PHP Authentication and Access Control Libraries


This class provides an easy way to retrieve all the strings for a multilingual site from a data source (i.e. db).
The following containers are provided, more will follow:

  • PEAR::DB
  • PEAR::MDB2
  • gettext
  • XML
  • PEAR::DB_DataObject (experimental)

It is designed to reduce the number of queries to the db, caching the results when possible.
An Admin class is provided to easily manage translations (add/remove a language, add/remove a string).
Currently, the following decorators are provided:

  • CacheLiteFunction (for file-based caching)
  • CacheMemory (for memory-based caching)
  • DefaultText (to replace empty strings with their keys)
  • ErrorText (to replace empty strings with a custom error text)
  • Iconv (to switch from/to different encodings)
  • Lang (resort to fallback languages for empty strings)
  • SpecialChars (replace html entities with their hex codes)
  • UTF-8 (to convert UTF-8 strings to ISO-8859-1)

PEAR::Translation2 tutorials


Package to validate various data. It includes :

  • numbers (min/max, decimal or not)
  • email (syntax, domain check, rfc822)
  • string (predefined type alpha upper and/or lowercase, numeric,…)
  • date (min, max, rfc822 compliant)
  • uri (RFC2396)
  • possibility valid multiple data with a single method call (::multiple)

An introduction to PEAR’s Validate package


Spreadsheet_Excel_Writer was born as a porting of the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel Perl module to PHP.
It allows writing of Excel spreadsheets without the need for COM objects.
It supports formulas, images (BMP) and all kinds of formatting for text and cells.
It currently supports the BIFF5 format (Excel 5.0), so functionality appeared in the latest Excel versions is not yet available.
Generating Spreadsheets with PHP and PEAR
What is Spreadsheet_Excel_Writer?


A library that uses Maxmind’s GeoIP databases to accurately determine geographic location of an IP address.
Tutorial from HTML Blog


This library makes it very easy to use, writing simple code, yet the library is very powerful.
It lets you easily read or generate tar, gz, tgz, bz2, tbz, zip, ar (or deb) archives to files, memory, mail or standard output.
File_Archive tutorial
SitePoint » File_Archive


XML_Serializer serializes complex data structures like arrays or object as XML documents.
This class helps you generating any XML document you require without the need for DOM.
Furthermore this package can be used as a replacement to serialize() and unserialize() as it comes with a matching

XML_Unserializer that is able to create PHP data structures (like arrays and objects) from XML documents, if type hints are available.
If you use the XML_Unserializer on standard XML files, it will try to guess how it has to be unserialized. In most cases it does exactly what you expect it to do.

Dev Shed XML_Serializer
Instant XML with PHP and PEAR::XML_Serializer

10 code snippets for PHP developers

I’ve compiled a small list of some useful code snippets which might help you when writing your PHP scripts…

Email address check

Checks for a valid email address using the php-email-address-validationclass.
Source and docs: http://code.google.com/p/php-email-address-validation/

$validator = new EmailAddressValidator;
if ($validator->check_email_address('[email protected]')) { 
    // Email address is technically valid 
else {
    // Email not valid

Random password generator

PHP password generator is a complete, working random password generation function for PHP. It allows the developer to customize the password: set its length and strength. Just include this function anywhere in your code and then use it.
Source : http://www.webtoolkit.info/php-random-password-generator.html

function generatePassword($length=9, $strength=0) {
    $vowels = 'aeuy';
    $consonants = 'bdghjmnpqrstvz';
    if ($strength & 1) {
        $consonants .= 'BDGHJLMNPQRSTVWXZ';
    if ($strength & 2) {
        $vowels .= "AEUY";
    if ($strength & 4) {
        $consonants .= '23456789';
    if ($strength & 8) {
        $consonants .= '@#$%';

    $password = '';
    $alt = time() % 2;
    for ($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++) {
        if ($alt == 1) {
            $password .= $consonants[(rand() % strlen($consonants))];
            $alt = 0;
        } else {
            $password .= $vowels[(rand() % strlen($vowels))];
            $alt = 1;
    return $password;

Get IP address

Returns the real IP address of a visitor, even when connecting via a proxy.
Source : http://roshanbh.com.np/2007/12/getting-real-ip-address-in-php.html

function getRealIpAddr(){
	if (!empty($_SERVER['HTTP_CLIENT_IP'])){
		//check ip from share internet
	elseif (!empty($_SERVER['HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR'])){
		//to check ip is pass from proxy
		$ip = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
	return $ip;

XSL transformation

PHP5 version
Source : http://www.tonymarston.net/php-mysql/xsl.html

$xp = new XsltProcessor();

// create a DOM document and load the XSL stylesheet
$xsl = new DomDocument;
// import the XSL styelsheet into the XSLT process

// create a DOM document and load the XML datat
$xml_doc = new DomDocument;

// transform the XML into HTML using the XSL file
if ($html = $xp->transformToXML($xml_doc)) {
	echo $html;
else {
	trigger_error('XSL transformation failed.', E_USER_ERROR);
} // if 

PHP4 version

function xml2html($xmldata, $xsl){
   /* $xmldata -> your XML */
   /* $xsl -> XSLT file */

   $arguments = array('/_xml' => $xmldata);
   $xsltproc = xslt_create();
   xslt_set_encoding($xsltproc, 'ISO-8859-1');
   $html = xslt_process($xsltproc, $xmldata, $xsl, NULL, $arguments);

   if (empty($html)) {
       die('XSLT processing error: '. xslt_error($xsltproc));
   return $html;

echo xml2html('myxmml.xml', 'myxsl.xsl');

Force downloading of a file

Forces a user to download a file, for e.g you have an image but you want the user to download it instead of displaying it in his browser.

header("Content-type: application/octet-stream");

// displays progress bar when downloading (credits to Felix ;-))
header("Content-Length: " . filesize('myImage.jpg'));

// file name of download file
header('Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="myImage.jpg"');

// reads the file on the server

String encoding to prevent harmful code

Web applications face any number of threats; one of them is cross-site scripting and related injection attacks. The Reform library attempts to provide a solid set of functions for encoding output for the most common context targets in web applications (e.g. HTML, XML, JavaScript, etc)
Source : http://phed.org/reform-encoding-library/

Reform::HtmlEncode('a potentially harmful string');

Sending mail

Using PHPMailer
PHPMailer a powerful email transport class with a big features and small footprint that is simple to use and integrate into your own software.
Source : http://phpmailer.codeworxtech.com/

$mail = new PHPMailer();  
$mail->From = '[email protected]';  
$mail->FromName = 'HTML Blog';  
$mail->Host = 'smtp.site.com';  
$mail->Mailer = 'smtp'; 
$mail->Subject = 'My Subject';
$body = 'Hello<br/>How are you ?';
$textBody = 'Hello, how are you ?';
$mail->Body = $body;  
$mail->AltBody = $textBody;  
$mail->AddAddress('asvin [@] gmail.com');
	echo 'There has been a mail error !';

Using Swift Mailer
Swift Mailer is an alternative to PHPMailer and is a fully OOP library for sending e-mails from PHP websites and applications.
Source : http://swiftmailer.org/

// include classes
require_once "lib/Swift.php";
require_once "lib/Swift/Connection/SMTP.php";
$swift =& new Swift(new Swift_Connection_SMTP("smtp.site.com", 25));
$message =& new Swift_Message("My Subject", "Hello<br/>How are you ?", "text/html");
if ($swift->send($message, "asvin [@] gmail.com", "[email protected]")){
    echo "Message sent";
    echo 'There has been a mail error !';
//It's polite to do this when you're finished

Uploading of files

Using class.upload.php from Colin Verot
Source : http://www.verot.net/php_class_upload.htm

$uploadedImage = new Upload($_FILES['uploadImage']);
if ($uploadedImage->uploaded) {
	if ($uploadedImage->processed) {
		echo 'file has been uploaded';

List files in directory

List all files in a directory and return an array.
Source : http://www.laughing-buddha.net/jon/php/dirlist/

function dirList ($directory) {
    // create an array to hold directory list
    $results = array();

    // create a handler for the directory
    $handler = opendir($directory);

    // keep going until all files in directory have been read
    while ($file = readdir($handler)) {

        // if $file isn't this directory or its parent, 
        // add it to the results array
        if ($file != '.' && $file != '..')
            $results[] = $file;

    // tidy up: close the handler

    // done!
    return $results;

Querying RDBMS with MDB2 (for e.g MySQL)

PEAR MDB2 provides a common API for all supported RDBMS.

Source : http://pear.php.net/package/MDB2

// include MDB2 class

// connection info
$db =& MDB2::factory('mysql://username:[email protected]/database');
// set fetch mode

// querying data
$query = 'SELECT id,label FROM myTable';
$result = $db->queryAll($query);

// inserting data
// prepare statement
$statement = $db->prepare('INSERT INTO mytable(id,label) VALUES(?,?)');
// our data
$sqlData = array($id, $label);
// execute

// disconnect from db

Add RSS feeds to your website

Adding a RSS feed to your website has never been this easy with PHP, especially with MagpieRSS.

About MagpieRSS

MagpieRSS is an RSS and Atom parser for PHP which supports RSS 0.9, RSS 1.0, the various Userland RSS versions (0.9x and 2.0). Additionally it supports Atom 0.3, and many custom RSS namespaces.

Features of MagpieRSS

  • Easy to Use
  • Parses RSS 0.9 – RSS 1.0
  • Integrated Object Cache
  • HTTP Conditional GETs
  • Configurable
  • Modular
  • Secure
  • Bandwidth friendly

Where to get the bird?

Download MagpieRSS from http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=55691

Sample basic script

The following script will parse the RSS feed from Slashdot and display the titles.


	$feed = 'http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot';
	$rss = fetch_rss($feed);

	echo '<ul>';
	foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
		$title = $item['title'];
		$url = $item['link'];
		echo '<li><a href="'.$url.'">'.$title.'</a></li>';
	echo '</ul>';

First we include the rss_fetch.inc file located in the extracted magpierss folder which will help us in fetching and parsing the feed. Then we define the RSS feed URL and we tell MagpieRSS to fetch the data with the fetch_rss function. After that we just loop through the array of data and echo the output.

Note that MagpieRSS will try to create a directory named “cache” to cache the items for 1 hour to prevent excessive requests to the RSS feed. This directory must be writable by your webserver. If you want to change the cache lifespan, add

define('MAGPIE_CACHE_AGE', 900);

in your script. This will cache the items for 15 minutes (900 seconds). And if you want to change the cache directory add the following line of code :

define('MAGPIE_CACHE_DIR', '/tmp/feedcache');

The cache file will be created with a long random name and saved in the /tmp/feedcache directory

The final code looks like that :

	define('MAGPIE_CACHE_DIR', '/tmp/feedcache');
	define('MAGPIE_CACHE_AGE', 900);		

	$feed = 'http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot';
	$rss = fetch_rss($feed);

	echo '<ul>';
	foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
		$title = $item['title'];
		$url = $item['link'];
		echo '<li><a href="'.$url.'">'.$title.'</a></li>';
	echo '</ul>';

HTML entities within XSL

You want to have

in your XSL stylesheet but you’re getting an error, just put these few lines of code at the top, before the

tag :

<!DOCTYPE xsl:stylesheet [
<!ENTITY nbsp "&#160;">
<!ENTITY AElig "&#198;">
<!ENTITY AMP "&amp;#38;">
<!ENTITY Aacute "&#193;">
<!ENTITY Acirc "&#194;">
<!ENTITY Agrave "&#192;">
<!ENTITY Alpha "&#913;">
<!ENTITY Aring "&#197;">
<!ENTITY Atilde "&#195;">
<!ENTITY Auml "&#196;">
<!ENTITY Beta "&#914;">
<!ENTITY COPY "&#169;">
<!ENTITY Ccedil "&#199;">
<!ENTITY Chi "&#935;">
<!ENTITY Dagger "&#8225;">
<!ENTITY Delta "&#916;">
<!ENTITY ETH "&#208;">
<!ENTITY Eacute "&#201;">
<!ENTITY Ecirc "&#202;">
<!ENTITY Egrave "&#200;">
<!ENTITY Epsilon "&#917;">
<!ENTITY Eta "&#919;">
<!ENTITY Euml "&#203;">
<!ENTITY GT "&#62;">
<!ENTITY Gamma "&#915;">
<!ENTITY Iacute "&#205;">
<!ENTITY Icirc "&#206;">
<!ENTITY Igrave "&#204;">
<!ENTITY Iota "&#921;">
<!ENTITY Iuml "&#207;">
<!ENTITY Kappa "&#922;">
<!ENTITY LT "&amp;#60;">
<!ENTITY Lambda "&#923;">
<!ENTITY Mu "&#924;">
<!ENTITY Ntilde "&#209;">
<!ENTITY Nu "&#925;">
<!ENTITY OElig "&#338;">
<!ENTITY Oacute "&#211;">
<!ENTITY Ocirc "&#212;">
<!ENTITY Ograve "&#210;">
<!ENTITY Omega "&#937;">
<!ENTITY Omicron "&#927;">
<!ENTITY Oslash "&#216;">
<!ENTITY Otilde "&#213;">
<!ENTITY Ouml "&#214;">
<!ENTITY Phi "&#934;">
<!ENTITY Pi "&#928;">
<!ENTITY Prime "&#8243;">
<!ENTITY Psi "&#936;">
<!ENTITY QUOT "&#34;">
<!ENTITY REG "&#174;">
<!ENTITY Rho "&#929;">
<!ENTITY Scaron "&#352;">
<!ENTITY Sigma "&#931;">
<!ENTITY THORN "&#222;">
<!ENTITY TRADE "&#8482;">
<!ENTITY Tau "&#932;">
<!ENTITY Theta "&#920;">
<!ENTITY Uacute "&#218;">
<!ENTITY Ucirc "&#219;">
<!ENTITY Ugrave "&#217;">
<!ENTITY Upsilon "&#933;">
<!ENTITY Uuml "&#220;">
<!ENTITY Xi "&#926;">
<!ENTITY Yacute "&#221;">
<!ENTITY Yuml "&#376;">
<!ENTITY Zeta "&#918;">
<!ENTITY aacute "&#225;">
<!ENTITY aafs "&#8301;">
<!ENTITY acirc "&#226;">
<!ENTITY acute "&#180;">
<!ENTITY aelig "&#230;">
<!ENTITY agrave "&#224;">
<!ENTITY alefsym "&#8501;">
<!ENTITY alpha "&#945;">
<!ENTITY and "&#8743;">
<!ENTITY ang "&#8736;">
<!ENTITY aring "&#229;">
<!ENTITY ass "&#8299;">
<!ENTITY asymp "&#8776;">
<!ENTITY atilde "&#227;">
<!ENTITY auml "&#228;">
<!ENTITY bdquo "&#8222;">
<!ENTITY beta "&#946;">
<!ENTITY brvbar "&#166;">
<!ENTITY bull "&#8226;">
<!ENTITY cap "&#8745;">
<!ENTITY ccedil "&#231;">
<!ENTITY cedil "&#184;">
<!ENTITY cent "&#162;">
<!ENTITY chi "&#967;">
<!ENTITY circ "&#710;">
<!ENTITY clubs "&#9827;">
<!ENTITY cong "&#8773;">
<!ENTITY copy "&#169;">
<!ENTITY crarr "&#8629;">
<!ENTITY cup "&#8746;">
<!ENTITY curren "&#164;">
<!ENTITY dArr "&#8659;">
<!ENTITY dagger "&#8224;">
<!ENTITY darr "&#8595;">
<!ENTITY deg "&#176;">
<!ENTITY delta "&#948;">
<!ENTITY diams "&#9830;">
<!ENTITY divide "&#247;">
<!ENTITY eacute "&#233;">
<!ENTITY ecirc "&#234;">
<!ENTITY egrave "&#232;">
<!ENTITY empty "&#8709;">
<!ENTITY emsp "&#8195;">
<!ENTITY ensp "&#8194;">
<!ENTITY epsilon "&#949;">
<!ENTITY equiv "&#8801;">
<!ENTITY eta "&#951;">
<!ENTITY eth "&#240;">
<!ENTITY euml "&#235;">
<!ENTITY exist "&#8707;">
<!ENTITY fnof "&#402;">
<!ENTITY forall "&#8704;">
<!ENTITY frac12 "&#189;">
<!ENTITY frac14 "&#188;">
<!ENTITY frac34 "&#190;">
<!ENTITY frasl "&#8260;">
<!ENTITY gamma "&#947;">
<!ENTITY ge "&#8805;">
<!ENTITY hArr "&#8660;">
<!ENTITY harr "&#8596;">
<!ENTITY hearts "&#9829;">
<!ENTITY hellip "&#8230;">
<!ENTITY iacute "&#237;">
<!ENTITY iafs "&#8300;">
<!ENTITY icirc "&#238;">
<!ENTITY iexcl "&#161;">
<!ENTITY igrave "&#236;">
<!ENTITY image "&#8465;">
<!ENTITY infin "&#8734;">
<!ENTITY int "&#8747;">
<!ENTITY iota "&#953;">
<!ENTITY iquest "&#191;">
<!ENTITY isin "&#8712;">
<!ENTITY iss "&#8298;">
<!ENTITY iuml "&#239;">
<!ENTITY kappa "&#954;">
<!ENTITY lArr "&#8656;">
<!ENTITY lambda "&#955;">
<!ENTITY lang "&#9001;">
<!ENTITY laquo "&#171;">
<!ENTITY larr "&#8592;">
<!ENTITY lceil "&#8968;">
<!ENTITY ldquo "&#8220;">
<!ENTITY le "&#8804;">
<!ENTITY lfloor "&#8970;">
<!ENTITY lowast "&#8727;">
<!ENTITY loz "&#9674;">
<!ENTITY lre "&#8234;">
<!ENTITY lrm "&#8206;">
<!ENTITY lro "&#8237;">
<!ENTITY lsaquo "&#8249;">
<!ENTITY lsquo "&#8216;">
<!ENTITY macr "&#175;">
<!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
<!ENTITY micro "&#181;">
<!ENTITY middot "&#183;">
<!ENTITY minus "&#8722;">
<!ENTITY mu "&#956;">
<!ENTITY nabla "&#8711;">
<!ENTITY nads "&#8302;">
<!ENTITY nbsp "&#160;">
<!ENTITY ndash "&#8211;">
<!ENTITY ne "&#8800;">
<!ENTITY ni "&#8715;">
<!ENTITY nods "&#8303;">
<!ENTITY not "&#172;">
<!ENTITY notin "&#8713;">
<!ENTITY nsub "&#8836;">
<!ENTITY ntilde "&#241;">
<!ENTITY nu "&#957;">
<!ENTITY oacute "&#243;">
<!ENTITY ocirc "&#244;">
<!ENTITY oelig "&#339;">
<!ENTITY ograve "&#242;">
<!ENTITY oline "&#8254;">
<!ENTITY omega "&#969;">
<!ENTITY omicron "&#959;">
<!ENTITY oplus "&#8853;">
<!ENTITY or "&#8744;">
<!ENTITY ordf "&#170;">
<!ENTITY ordm "&#186;">
<!ENTITY oslash "&#248;">
<!ENTITY otilde "&#245;">
<!ENTITY otimes "&#8855;">
<!ENTITY ouml "&#246;">
<!ENTITY para "&#182;">
<!ENTITY part "&#8706;">
<!ENTITY pdf "&#8236;">
<!ENTITY permil "&#8240;">
<!ENTITY perp "&#8869;">
<!ENTITY phi "&#966;">
<!ENTITY pi "&#960;">
<!ENTITY piv "&#982;">
<!ENTITY plusmn "&#177;">
<!ENTITY pound "&#163;">
<!ENTITY prime "&#8242;">
<!ENTITY prod "&#8719;">
<!ENTITY prop "&#8733;">
<!ENTITY psi "&#968;">
<!ENTITY rArr "&#8658;">
<!ENTITY radic "&#8730;">
<!ENTITY rang "&#9002;">
<!ENTITY raquo "&#187;">
<!ENTITY rarr "&#8594;">
<!ENTITY rceil "&#8969;">
<!ENTITY rdquo "&#8221;">
<!ENTITY real "&#8476;">
<!ENTITY reg "&#174;">
<!ENTITY rfloor "&#8971;">
<!ENTITY rho "&#961;">
<!ENTITY rle "&#8235;">
<!ENTITY rlm "&#8207;">
<!ENTITY rlo "&#8238;">
<!ENTITY rsaquo "&#8250;">
<!ENTITY rsquo "&#8217;">
<!ENTITY sbquo "&#8218;">
<!ENTITY scaron "&#353;">
<!ENTITY sdot "&#8901;">
<!ENTITY sect "&#167;">
<!ENTITY shy "&#173;">
<!ENTITY sigma "&#963;">
<!ENTITY sigmaf "&#962;">
<!ENTITY sim "&#8764;">
<!ENTITY spades "&#9824;">
<!ENTITY sub "&#8834;">
<!ENTITY sube "&#8838;">
<!ENTITY sum "&#8721;">
<!ENTITY sup "&#8835;">
<!ENTITY sup1 "&#185;">
<!ENTITY sup2 "&#178;">
<!ENTITY sup3 "&#179;">
<!ENTITY supe "&#8839;">
<!ENTITY szlig "&#223;">
<!ENTITY tau "&#964;">
<!ENTITY there4 "&#8756;">
<!ENTITY theta "&#952;">
<!ENTITY thetasym "&#977;">
<!ENTITY thinsp "&#8201;">
<!ENTITY thorn "&#254;">
<!ENTITY tilde "&#732;">
<!ENTITY times "&#215;">
<!ENTITY trade "&#8482;">
<!ENTITY uArr "&#8657;">
<!ENTITY uacute "&#250;">
<!ENTITY uarr "&#8593;">
<!ENTITY ucirc "&#251;">
<!ENTITY ugrave "&#249;">
<!ENTITY uml "&#168;">
<!ENTITY upsih "&#978;">
<!ENTITY upsilon "&#965;">
<!ENTITY uuml "&#252;">
<!ENTITY weierp "&#8472;">
<!ENTITY xi "&#958;">
<!ENTITY yacute "&#253;">
<!ENTITY yen "&#165;">
<!ENTITY yuml "&#255;">
<!ENTITY zeta "&#950;">
<!ENTITY zwj "&#8205;">
<!ENTITY zwnj "&#8204;">
<!ENTITY zwsp "&#0203;">